The Aeon of Horus: NASA’s Occult History

The spectacular launch of Apollo 11 in 1969 seemed a noble expression of the full potential of rational, human, scientific reasoning. The apparent success of that first manned lunar flight also established a profound measure of public pride and confidence in the stalwart dedication and integrity of the men and women employed by America’s first civilian space agency, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration: NASA.

In 1969 no human endeavor could have appeared more far removed from primitive superstitions and ancient occult mysticism than our national space agency; an agency whose rocketry success was solidly grounded in precise mathematical logic and practical technological rationality.

And yet while a decade of NASA’s spaceflight wizardry enthralled a nation of television viewers almost nightly, the truth of NASA’s deeply dark occult origins was discretely hidden from public awareness; origins linked to perhaps the most “wicked” of occult practitioners in modern history, none other than self-proclaimed Satanist, Aleister Crowley himself.

This uncanny convergence of science and mysticism was facilitated by the rocket pioneer genius and founder of Cal Tech’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, John Whiteside Parsons.


In the years just prior to the Second World War Jack Parsons and a hand-full of his Cal Tech buddies were working to perfect solid fuel rocket propulsion. Parson’s rocket project limped along on a shoe-string budget until his efforts drew serious attention from the Defense Department.

Thanks to the war, his research expanded into a major rocket design enterprise that would become known as the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California—JPL; which in turn would develop a vital association with more advanced space rocket design proposed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

But Jack Parsons was possessed with extraordinary ideas that sought far loftier heights than mere space rocket designs. Parsons was fascinated by the occult and in 1941 he was to join the Pasadena chapter of Ordo Templi Orientis—Aleister Crowley’s secret society.

Not long after, Parsons took over the Agape lodge himself. Observing Parsons’ natural aptitude for ritual sex magic called “Thelema”, the membership saw him as a potential successor to the “Great Beast”, Aleister Crowley himself, whom Parsons addressed as "Most Beloved Father".


Born on October 12, 1875 in Warwickshire England, Aleister Crowley was an English occultist, ceremonial magician, poet, painter, novelist, and mountaineer. He was responsible for founding the religion and philosophy of sexual magic—Thelema”, in which role he identified himself as the prophet entrusted with guiding humanity into the Aeon of Horus in the early 20th century.  In 1898 he joined the esoteric Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, where he was trained in ceremonial magic. Like many of that era, Crowley was something of a crusading militant intellectual determined to break down the conventions of accepted social morality. Later he travelled to Mexico and then India to study Hindu and Buddhist practices. In 1904 he married Rose Edith Kelly and they honeymooned in Cairo, Egypt. In the great pyramid Crowley conducted an occult ritual intending to access supernatural powers…

Following their fateful ritual in the Great Pyramid, Crowley’s wife Rose mysteriously proclaimed that "the Equinox of the Gods has come."

The alleged superhuman intelligence contacted by Aleister Crowley during his visit to Egypt, was named Aiwass, who declared, “I am a god of war and vengeance” and then dictated to Crowley a work called the “Book of the Law,” which prophesied wars and revolutions leading to the collapse of Christian civilizations and the dawn of the Aeon of Horus.

Crowley’s ‘bible’ also proclaims the Law of Thelema, usually summed up in three mantra-like verses: “Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the law,” “Love is the law, love under will…” and “Every man and every woman is a star.” According to another Crowley student, Kenneth Grant, Aiwass is an extraterrestrial from Sirius—the stellar representation of Egyptian Goddess Isis.

Years later, from January through March of 1918 Crowley began another series of sexual magic ceremonies in New York city called the “Amalantrah Workings in a Central Park West apartment, to intentionally open a portal of entry allowing demonic and other similar entities a passageway to access our earth-world reality.


Crowley was convinced that seeking contact with supernatural beings offered the only salvation to the human race.

My observation of the Universe convinces me that there are beings of intelligence and power of a far higher quality than anything we can conceive of as human; that they are not necessarily based on the cerebral and nervous structures that we know; and that the one and only chance for mankind to advance as a whole, is for individuals to make contact with such Beings.”

Reports of these UFO-associated entities later became prevalent in the popular culture of the 1980’s thanks to Whitley Strieber’s best-selling book ‘Communion’ as well as many of Hollywood’s ‘alien’ movies that would follow…

The rift "in-between the spaces of the stars," created by the Amalantrah Working, opened a gateway through which Lam and other extra-cosmic influences could enter the known universe, and more specifically, our earth-world reality.

But according to occultists involved in such things, the Portal has since widened. Thanks in part to additional hermetic tinkering by Jack Parsons.


By 1945 Jack Parsons was high-priest of Crowley’s Agape Lodge, in Pasadena where he was joined by L. Ron Hubbard, later founder of Scientology. Impressed by Hubbard's exuberance and energy Jack wrote in a letter to Crowley:

"I deduced that he is in direct touch with some higher intelligence. He is the most “Thelemic” person I have ever met and is in complete accord with our own principles".

He was soon initiated into the secrets of the Ordo Templi Orientis and made Parsons' magical partner. Together Parsons and Hubbard hatched a sordid sex magic scheme called Babylon Working to bring forth the Antichrist and apocalypse. [Babylon meaning: Gateway of the gods]

Parson’s wife Betty became romantically involved with Hubbard, while Parson’s himself became infatuated with a striking blue-eyed red-head named Marjorie Cameron, who became actively involved in the Babalon Working ritual magick to invoke the antichrist.

But even Crowley expressed his misgivings about this project stating in a letter:

"Apparently Parsons and Hubbard or somebody is producing a moonchild. I get fairly frantic when I contemplate the idiocy of these louts."

A “moonchild” is human vehicle for a ‘demon-seed’ not unlike ‘Rosemary’s Baby’. From the diaries of the participants, it was also clear that they were not as adept as Crowley in the closings of portals. What their amateur efforts may have accomplished was the drastic enlargement and ripping of an existing Magickal Portal and the subsequent non-closure of it.

Perhaps the rip they created was not possible to close.

In any event, the modern UFO era began exactly a year and a half later on June 24th, 1947, with Kenneth Arnold’s sighting over the Cascade Mountains in Washington State as well as the UFO crash at Roswell, New Mexico.

Successful or not, this ambitious scheme collapsed on itself when Hubbard skipped town with Parson’s wife Betty and (allegedly) $50,000.00. [Later Hubbard claimed he was operating on orders from the Navy to break up the “black magic cult” at JPL.]

But despite their lofty hermetic ambitions the lives of Crowley, Parsons and Hubbard all came to tragic ends.

Aleister Crowley died a destitute heroin addict in 1947. In June of 1952, Jack Parsons was killed in what was claimed to be an accidental explosion in his home laboratory. The FBI quickly moved in and mysteriously seized all his records and notes [which remain ‘classified’ to this day].

And L. Ron Hubbard died of a stroke in 1986…

Crowley’s Legacy: The Equinox of the Gods

Following Crowley’s fateful ritual in the Great Pyramid in 1904, his wife Rose proclaimed that "the Equinox of the Gods has come."

According to the “Book of the Law” that he transcribed, the ruler-ship of three gods has held a determining force on the fate of the world throughout human history.

First was the Aeon of Isis, whose reign was matriarchal and nurturing. Next was the Aeon of Osiris her consort, whose influence was patriarchal, destructive and full of turmoil.  The Aeon of Horus, child of Isis and Osiris—was ushered in by Crowley, is the age we live in today. Horus as ruler is but a child, “and throughout this age we will witness the child maturing and thus the stability of the world solidifying gradually into more harmonious new ways of thought.”

[However, the Aeon of Horus would be preceded by an era of great violence, aggression, and fire.]


Shall we simply dismiss Crowley and Parsons as an eccentric pair of lecherous crackpots? Or, have higher initiates within Secret Society operations recognized that certain profound revelations might be gleaned from their magical workings; revelations so profound as to be secretly incorporated into specific space exploration projects?

Is it possible that Crowley did in fact make contact with extra-terrestrial beings? And was he alone in his efforts?

In 1919, just one year after Crowley’s ‘Amalantrah Workings’ in New York City, members of an occult group in Germany called “The Vril Society” claimed to have established telepathic contact, through trance medium Maria Orsic, with beings from the Aldebaran star system in the constellation of Taurus. These aliens were said to have actually gifted the “Vril Society” with flying saucer technology.

Even famed German rocket engineer, Hermann Oberth himself admitted the success of German technological advances during the war was thanks, in part, to “the people of other worlds.”

And later, following World War II there evolved a curious convergence of American and Nazi technologies within NASA’s space rocket development programs. Was merely building more superior rockets than the Russians the driving motivation for such an odd alliance? Or was it something deeper, darker and far more occult?

And more than that, just what explains the driving motivation behind the relentless perpetuation of Secret Societies all throughout human history?


Crowley’s main goal of practicing ‘western’ magic was to advance humanity by contact with higher intelligence either by calling them down or by traveling to their planet. Crowley believed contact with these higher intelligences was attainable by becoming one with them; that is by meta-morphing into man-gods—or super-men. This goal was attainable through the ancient systems of Hebrew and Babylonian Kabbalah and other forms of metaphysical science.

The Holy Grail sought by the Knights Templar in the secret chambers under Solomon’s temple was not gold and treasures, it was instead the Hebrew Kabbalistic text itself which contains the alchemical secret that “physical matter can be transformed molecule by molecule by the use of incantations of ancient Hebrew letters and numbers and that the nature of reality is really an ILLUSION.” This was the heart of Crowley’s ritual magick as well as Freemasonry.


But the quest for attaining the gods was not limited to Hebrew Kabbalah, A powerful impulse to access its supernatural roots appeared in Germany after the turn of the 20th century. Disaffected with the gross materialism of rampant industrialization the German people sought new doctrines that would restore lost links to their true cultural heritage.

In 1888 Madame Helena Blavatsky claimed to have traveled to Tibet and there to have been initiated into the secrets of spiritual masters she called “The Hidden Elect”. In the doctrines of occultists the Hidden Elect or “The Great White Brotherhood” are believed to be humans who by initiation and self-denial have risen to become ‘adepts’. They have gained powers and knowledge beyond those of ordinary mortals.

Unlike Aleister Crowley, Madame Blavatsky did not claim to be an adept in her own right, but she did claim constant telepathic communication with her hidden masters. They had revealed to her, their chosen one, the occult history of the human race, which revealed the conception of the blonde, blue-eyed Aryan race as being the master race.

Austrian clairvoyant Guido von List believed that in the Germans more than any other people runs the blood of the mythical race called by Madame Blavatsky “the Aryans”. To List the ‘great war’ [World War I] was proof that the modern world with its materialism and its democracy was destroying itself. But out of war and destruction would come the victory of the German cause and the beginning of an Aryan millennium. List revived the prayer of the 16th century philosopher and heretic Giordano Bruno, “Old Jove let the Germans realize their own strength and they shall not be men but gods.” 

Like Aleister Crowley and Madame Blavatsky, List’s psychic researches led him to believe in the existence of a hidden ‘elect’. His visions of the ancient German tribes had revealed to him an elite class of priest rulers. List calls it the Armanenschaft. The role of the Armanenschaft was to preserve the occult knowledge of the Germans’ Aryan ancestors. List claimed that the imposition of Christianity on the Teutonic tribes and the persecution of the followers of the old religion forced the Armanenschaft to continue its traditions in secret. Their law had lived on in the rituals and symbols of a network of secret societies. The store of occult knowledge had been preserved down the centuries by Freemasons, Rosicrucians and chivalrous orders such as the Knights Templar.

With the rise of National Socialism in Germany Hitler’s deputy, Heinrich Himmler formed a new occult order of Teutonic Knights out of the Armanenschaft which became the Nazi SS; a powerful secret society that would eventually claim German rocket design genius Wernher von Braun as one of its members.

After World War II thanks to “Operation paperclip”, Von Braun and virtually his entire Nazi V-II rocket design staff were repatriated into America’s space rocket program where they could continue to pursue their own secret space exploration ambitions as well…


The whole history of the occult is a legacy of daring explorations... from the Knights Templar seeking out hidden chambers under King Solomon’s Temple there arose secret society brotherhoods determined to seek out the lost mysteries of ancient alchemical magic. Christopher Columbus followed Templar traditions to set out for the New World...

Even the colonies fighting for existance in early America were a Freemasonic enterprizse...


As well, the daring explorations of Freemasons Lewis and Clark opened North America for pioneer settlement.

More recently, 33rd Degree Freemason, Adm. Richard E. Byrd and his pilot, Bernt Balchen in 1928 dropped Masonic flags on both the North and South Poles--Balchen even added his Shrine fez.  In the Antarctic expedition of 1933, sixty of its eighty-two members were Freemasons and on February 5, 1935, Byrd established the First Masonic Antarctic Lodge, No. 777 of the New Zealand constitution.

Rare mention is given to the fact that in late 1938, just before WWII, Adm. Richard E. Byrd visited Hamburg, Germany and was invited to participate in the pending Nazi, "Neuschwabenland" Antarctic expedition. Despite his great expertise with polar exploration, Byrd declined the German invitation. However in 1947 a U.S. Navy Task Force under his command was dispatched to the Antarctic for the alleged purpose of ‘mapping the Pole’…

Was this subtle evidence of a competition between German and American secret societies to rediscover Atlantis under the south polar ice?

In 1969, assuming the Apollo 11 astronauts actually landed on the Moon, while Neil Armstrong hopped about on his moon-walk, 32 degree Freemason astronaut Buzz Aldrin was performing a solemn masonic ritual to honor ‘Isis’ inside the lunar module. His masonic flag which accompanied him to the moon and back is now an honored relic on display in the Scottish-Rite Freemason Temple in Washington D.C.




The “Holy Grail” sought by Secret Societies and contained within Kabbalah or middle-eastern ‘Babylonian magic’ was mastery over “Materia Prima”, the very fabric of time and space. And it is this key fragment of lost esoteric technologies; the hermetic secret of materia- prima, that has been preserved by ancient priesthoods and after many centuries passed on as the occult alchemy, or practical magic still utilized by modern secret societies today.

Common occult symbols variously represent ‘materia prima’ or the unseen hyper-dimensional physics that drives our physical reality. The hexagram, far more than the representation of Judaism, is symbolic of the spinning tetrahedron. Even the swastika is a stylized representation of spinning torsion physics.

The age old alchemical quest has been to steal ‘materia prima’ down from heaven and capture it in material form within this world’s three-dimensional existence. Could this be the secret motivation behind particular NASA projects? Is it conceivable that high initiates within NASA had been made aware from certain Aleister Crowley channelings that specific artifacts existed on the Moon, Mars and even Venus that were essential components for the continued advancement of this hermetic understanding and alchemical mastery; that the alchemical ‘holy grail’ lies just beyond our grasp on the Moon or Mars?


Just prior to World War II, when Jack Parsons was experimenting with rocket engines in Pasadena’s Arroyo Seco; on the other side of the country 33rd degree Freemason and head of the National Science Foundation, Dr. Vannevar Bush was working with noted Harvard astronomer, Dr. Donald Menzel to develop the “Differential Analyzer”, an analog computer capable of predicting centuries ahead the future positions of stars and planets from any point in the solar system; an indispensable tool that would eventually allow NASA to accurately predict planetary configurations related to flight mission specifics—not to mention arcane astrological configurations.

Curiously, following the Roswell UFO crash in 1947, both Drs. Vannevar Bush and Donald Menzel were to figure prominently as major players on President Truman’s top secret “Magic-12” UFO investigation team.

By 1958 the distinctly civilian National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA, was born with ambitious plans for both manned and unmanned space exploration missions. Having studied the potential social ramifications of such projects, the Brookings Institution filed a report in 1960 entitled: “Proposed Studies on the Implications of Peaceful Space Activities for Human Affairs”. This report cautioned that…

“Anthropological files contain many examples of societies, sure of their place in the universe, which have disintegrated when they had to associate with previously unfamiliar societies espousing different ideas and different life ways…”  

Thus to avoid such social disintegration, the Brookings report recommended that discovery of any extra-terrestrial life forms or their artifacts might wisely be withheld from general public disclosure…

However, the report curiously made specific reference to the Moon, Mars and Venus as being possible repositories for such extra-terrestrial artifacts—almost as if knowledge of the existence of such artifacts had already been established and specifically targeted for recovery…

Thus considering the profound influence of Aleister Crowley over Jack Parsons, at the inception of JPL--the Jet Propulsion Lab in Pasadena and its’ subsequent intrinsic association with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration—NASA, do we dare surmise that major space exploration projects have been deeply influenced, if not directed, by Crowley’s alleged associations with extra-terrestrial or extra-dimensional entities? As early as 1918 Crowley’s aliens revealed the existence of tantalizing artifacts on Mars…


“Lam told Crowley a story about Mars, [the fifth Seferot of the Hebrew tree of life concerning a lotus flower—three petaled—‘Pathfinder lander’ perchance, symbolic of hyper-dimensional physics] “looking at a mountain peak which had sharp edges where something sits and shines like the sun on water.” He said it was “a seed waiting to be born.” This story was also stated in the earlier Book of the Law dictated by Aiwass where it is written that “there will be a reward of Ra-Hoor-Khuit, an aspect of Horus, the babe in the egg waiting to be re-born whose number is 97. Thou art to go this way and seek of a lightning flash of enlightenment that in occult tradition is symbolic of Mars the god of war and fire.”

“The power behind these occult systems of philosophy on which the various mystery schools have historically been based lies in the beliefs of their practitioners that they embody universal laws of nature reflecting fundamental properties embedded in everything visible to human beings including man himself. No one person, people or race can thus lay just claim to own such laws although many throughout history have made the attempt. Two exquisite but radically different examples of the encoding of such natural systems here on earth are demonstrated by the Hebrew alphabet and by none other than the Great Pyramid of Giza Egypt.”

“The designers of these two similar but separately unique creations in fact apparently have encoded the same internal systems within each; an unfolding mathematical or architectural pattern communication information proposed by their designers to be streaming from higher dimensions, [ie. a hyper-dimensional physics] into our familiar three dimensional reality. Radically different schematic blueprints represented by widely divergent physical systems here on earth for in essence preserving identical yet extremely ancient views of the origin and structure of the universe.”

“One aspect of war on Earth may well be the battle to become heir to all aspects of this ancient crucial knowledge of reality and keep the other guy from finding out. Those in power apparently on rediscovering this ancient knowledge preserved from when and where, repeatedly make apparent conscious decisions to keep it for themselves. They’ve repeatedly set up institutions recognized as priesthoods; Sumer, Babylon, Egypt, in order to dole out ‘crumbs’ from  this priceless storehouse to all the rest of us while they do their level best to keep the real secret doctrines totally away. And the reasons are not always selfish at least it doesn’t seem to always start out that way. Usually it comes about because one those with this ‘special’ information cannot always freely share what one knows because of the real threat of being persecuted during one of those myriad inquisitions that roll over the planet from time to time, however even when it becomes safe to reveal such knowledge without fear of persecution as when democracies eventually arise, the withholding of such knowledge by a chosen few seems to become the prime objective for reasons based on arrogance, patriarchy and discrimination by the ‘chosen’.”

“There is also a belief with in the ‘Mystery Schools’ themselves the true understanding and evolution can only come about  through proper cultivation; an innate revelation brought about by symbolism and a consistent array of subtle images and themes. This process is supposed to enable the individual to reveal the bigger picture from within. It appears that this methodology for revealing long secret information is currently taking place at many levels in society, imperiled by those with the forgoing view, thus simultaneous with the controllers there may also exist a few benevolent efforts to leak images and paint pictures in a way that those with eyes will see…”


“Nasa”: An ancient Hebrew word meaning ‘to lift up to Heaven’.

President John F. Kennedy was not a Freemason, and after only four months in office he openly spoke out against secret societies. Yet NASA basked in the warmth of his ardent enthusiasm for space exploration right up until November 12, 1963 when he ordered Freemason Mission Director James Webb to initiate NASA plans for a joint U.S./Soviet lunar exploration initiative. From that point the occult brotherhoods closed ranks against Kennedy. And faithful to their oaths of secrecy the ‘traitor’ was ritually sacrificed in the open-air Masonic Temple, Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas, November 22, 1963.

Immediately following Kennedy’s assassination, Congressman Albert Thomas, protégé of Freemason Lyndon Johnson, who controlled NASA’s funding shared a knowing wink with Lyndon aboard Air Force One that NASA’s occult secrets were saved…

Since its inception, NASA had become the occult “Empire’ of not only the Masons but of Hitler’s SS and Crowley’s ‘magicians’; these ritual elitists had “literally stolen the entire space program for themselves from the rest of all mankind.”

“They had apparently been discreetly incubating for many years--even before NASA--with Brookings Institution insiders to foment political excuses to keep key NASA discoveries carefully hidden from the general public. The space agency appears to have been nothing less than a massive technological effort to validate their hermetic visions of literally accessing the ‘home of Osiris” on the surface of the moon and beyond to which they and they alone deserved sole access.

Space is destined to remain the exclusive possession of only those with the proper bloodlines and perspectives. All three of these secret societies retain at their core a deep obsession with the gods and magic of ancient Egypt.” [Richard Hoagland]


Thus it should not be surprising to discover that the sole individual responsible for selection of the Apollo landing sites was himself, an Egyptian…!

Dr. Farouk El-Baz was born in Cairo, Egypt and educated in the U.S. He was a geologist who taught in Germany and the U.S. before becoming involved with NASA’s space program in 1967 when he applied for a position at Bellcom, the corporation handling communications systems for the Apollo program.

But after El-Baz came on board, Bellcom’s job description underwent a significant change; they were now suddenly in charge of selecting the actual landing sites for the Apollo program—in fact El-Baz was SOLELY in charge of the site selection process.

El-Baz became the guy who picked all of the landing sites, controlled the dissemination and analysis of all the photography, and directly oversaw the astronaut’s geological training, preparing them for what they would actually observe on the lunar surface. In short—he was the most powerful single individual in the American space program.

And it just so happens that El-Baz’s father was an expert in the ancient Egyptian STELLAR RELIGIONS of Isis and Osiris. So basically you have the son of an expert on the Osirus cults picking the landing sites where all the occult stellar alignments take place.

All of the NASA landing site selection meetings were private, all of their meetings were classified and none of their paperwork has been de-classified.

Now lest there be any lingering doubts about NASA’s occult devotion to ancient Egypt, consider the name of its’ pending 2016 robotic asteroid landing mission… “OSIRIS-REX”!



So within this labyrinth of occult magick and deceptions did NASA actually accomplish a manned lunar landing in 1969? There is ample evidence to reveal that much of the Apollo photographic footage was faked; staged purely for public entertainment, but for what ends? What drives the deception? Was it technically impossible to fly to the moon?

Or was Apollo a public PR diversion to conceal a totally separate secret occult moon mission that employed highly classified space flight technologies?  Given the driving imperative for secret societies to acquire mastery of the ultimate alchemical powers, far from the prying eyes of the un-initiated, it seems that the convergence of three powerful secret societies in NASA’s top management suggests that very serious off-planet explorations were under way. But these explorations were strictly for the benefit of only the ‘illumined masters’ themselves!

In 1872, 33rd degree Freemason General Albert Pike defined the protocols for secrecy in his Masonic lexicon book, “Morals and Dogma”…

"Masonry, like all the Religions, all the Mysteries, Hermeticism and Alchemy, conceals its secrets from all except the Adepts and Sages, or the Elect, and uses false explanations and misinterpretations of its symbols to mislead those who deserve only to be misled…

          …to conceal the Truth, which it calls Light from them, and to draw them away from it. Truth is not for those who are unworthy or unable to receive it, or would pervert it. The Truth must be kept secret, and the masses need a teaching proportioned to their imperfect reason…

Every man's conception of God must be proportioned to his mental cultivation and intellectual powers, and moral excellence. God is, as man conceives Him, the reflected image of man himself..."

The ‘Craft’ of Social Engineering…

          Pike further wrote…

“A rough ashlar is the shapeless stone which is to be prepared in order to commence the philosophical work; and to be developed, in order to change its form from triangular to cubic, after the separation from it of its salt, sulphur and mercury, by the aid of the square, level, plumb and balance and all the other Masonic implements which we use symbolically…

When we build we must observe all the rules and proportions: for otherwise the Spirit of Life cannot lodge therein…

The rough ashlar is the PEOPLE, as a mass, rude and unorganized. The perfect ashlar, or cubical stone, symbol of perfection is the STATE, the rulers deriving their powers from the consent of the governed; the constitution and laws speaking the will of the people; the government harmonious, symmetrical, efficient; its powers properly distributed and duly adjusted in equilibrium.”

James H. Nichols  





Copyright 2017 James H. Nichols.  All rights reserved.